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The basic slow step, called a "slow", lasts for one beat, so that a full "right—left" step is equal to one 2 4 measure. The basic forward and backward walk of the dance is so counted — "slow-slow" — while many additional figures are counted "slow — quick-quick.
Just as musical rhythms are defined by a pattern of strong and weak beats, so repetitive body movements often depends on alternating "strong" and "weak" muscular movements.
However, since some such movements require more time in one phase than the other — such as the longer time required to lift a hammer than to strike — some dance rhythms fall equally naturally into triple metre.
Further, complex dances composed of a fixed sequence of steps always require phrases and melodies of a certain fixed length to accompany that sequence.
The very act of dancing, the steps themselves, generate an "initial skeleton of rhythmic beats" that must have preceded any separate musical accompaniment, while dance itself, as much as music, requires time-keeping  just as utilitarian repetitive movements such as walking, hauling and digging take on, as they become refined, something of the quality of dance.
Musical accompaniment therefore arose in the earliest dance, so that ancient Egyptians attributed the origin of the dance to the divine Athotus, who was said to have observed that music accompanying religious rituals caused participants to move rhythmically and to have brought these movements into proportional measure.
The same idea, that dance arises from musical rhythm, is still found in renaissance Europe in the works of the dancing master Guglielmo Ebreo da Pesaro who speaks of dance as a physical movement that arises from and expresses inward, spiritual motion agreeing with the "measures and perfect concords of harmony" that fall upon the human ear,  while, earlier, Mechthild of Magdeburg , seizing upon dance as a symbol of the holy life foreshadowed in Jesus' saying "I have piped and ye have not danced",  writes;.
I can not dance unless thou leadest. If thou wouldst have me spring aloft, sing thou and I will spring, into love and from love to knowledge and from knowledge to ecstasy above all human sense .
As has been shown above, dance has been represented through the ages as having emerged as a response to music yet, as Lincoln Kirstein implied, it is at least as likely that primitive music arose from dance.
Shawn concurs, stating that dance "was the first art of the human race, and the matrix out of which all other arts grew" and that even the " metre in our poetry today is a result of the accents necessitated by body movement, as the dancing and reciting were performed simultaneously"  — an assertion somewhat supported by the common use of the term "foot" to describe the fundamental rhythmic units of poetry.
Scholes , not a dancer but a musician, offers support for this view, stating that the steady measures of music, of two, three or four beats to the bar, its equal and balanced phrases, regular cadences, contrasts and repetitions, may all be attributed to the "incalculable" influence of dance upon music.
Hence, though doubtless, as Shawn asserts, "it is quite possible to develop the dance without music and The common ballad measures of hymns and folk-songs takes their name from dance, as does the carol , originally a circle dance.
Many purely musical pieces have been named " waltz " or " minuet ", for example, while many concert dances have been produced that are based upon abstract musical pieces, such as 2 and 3 Part Inventions , Adams Violin Concerto and Andantino.
Similarly, poems are often structured and named after dances or musical works, while dance and music have both drawn their conception of "measure" or "metre" from poetry.
Shawn quotes with approval the statement of Dalcroze that, while the art of musical rhythm consists in differentiating and combining time durations, pauses and accents "according to physiological law", that of "plastic rhythm" i.
Shawn nevertheless points out that the system of musical time is a "man-made, artificial thing The earlyth-century American dancer Helen Moller stated simply that "it is rhythm and form more than harmony and color which, from the beginning, has bound music, poetry and dancing together in a union that is indissoluble.
Concert dance, like opera , generally depends for its large-scale form upon a narrative dramatic structure. The movements and gestures of the choreography are primarily intended to mime the personality and aims of the characters and their part in the plot.
On the other hand, the ballet blanc , developed in the 19th century, allows interludes of rhythmic dance that developed into entirely "plotless" ballets in the 20th century  and that allowed fast, rhythmic dance-steps such as those of the petit allegro.
The ballet developed out of courtly dramatic productions of 16th- and 17th-century France and Italy and for some time dancers performed dances developed from those familiar from the musical suite,  all of which were defined by definite rhythms closely identified with each dance.
These appeared as character dances in the era of romantic nationalism. Ballet reached widespread vogue in the romantic era, accompanied by a larger orchestra and grander musical conceptions that did not lend themselves easily to rhythmic clarity and by dance that emphasised dramatic mime.
A broader concept of rhythm was needed, that which Rudolf Laban terms the "rhythm and shape" of movement that communicates character, emotion and intention,  while only certain scenes required the exact synchronisation of step and music essential to other dance styles, so that, to Laban, modern Europeans seemed totally unable to grasp the meaning of "primitive rhythmic movements",  a situation that began to change in the 20th century with such productions as Igor Stravinsky 's The Rite of Spring with its new rhythmic language evoking primal feelings of a primitive past.
Indian classical dance styles, like ballet, are often in dramatic form, so that there is a similar complementarity between narrative expression and "pure" dance.
In this case, however, the two are separately defined, though not always separately performed. The rhythmic elements, which are abstract and technical, are known as nritta.
Both this and expressive dance nritya , though, are closely tied to the rhythmic system tala. Teachers have adapted the spoken rhythmic mnemonic system called bol to the needs of dancers.
Japanese classical dance-theatre styles such as Kabuki and Noh , like Indian dance-drama, distinguish between narrative and abstract dance productions.
The three main categories of kabuki are jidaimono historical , sewamono domestic and shosagoto dance pieces.
Social dances , those intended for participation rather than for an audience, may include various forms of mime and narrative, but are typically set much more closely to the rhythmic pattern of music, so that terms like waltz and polka refer as much to musical pieces as to the dance itself.
The rhythm of the dancers' feet may even form an essential part of the music, as in tap dance. African dance, for example, is rooted in fixed basic steps, but may also allow a high degree of rhythmic interpretation: the feet or the trunk mark the basic pulse while cross-rhythms are picked up by shoulders, knees, or head, with the best dancers simultaneously giving plastic expression to all the elements of the polyrhythmic pattern.
Dance in Africa is deeply integrated into society and major events in a community are frequently reflected in dances: dances are performed for births and funerals, weddings and wars.
Thousands of dances are performed around the continent. These may be divided into traditional, neotraditional, and classical styles: folkloric dances of a particular society, dances created more recently in imitation of traditional styles, and dances transmitted more formally in schools or private lessons.
All Indian classical dances are to varying degrees rooted in the Natyashastra and therefore share common features: for example, the mudra s hand positions , some body positions, leg movement and the inclusion of dramatic or expressive acting or abhinaya.
Indian classical music provides accompaniment and dancers of nearly all the styles wear bells around their ankles to counterpoint and complement the percussion.
There are now many regional varieties of Indian classical dance. Dances like "Odra Magadhi" , which after decades long debate, has been traced to present day Mithila, Odisha region's dance form of Odissi Orissi , indicate influence of dances in cultural interactions between different regions.
The Punjab area overlapping India and Pakistan is the place of origin of Bhangra. It is widely known both as a style of music and a dance.
It is mostly related to ancient harvest celebrations, love, patriotism or social issues. Its music is coordinated by a musical instrument called the 'Dhol'.
Bhangra is not just music but a dance, a celebration of the harvest where people beat the dhol drum , sing Boliyaan lyrics and dance. It developed further with the Vaisakhi festival of the Sikhs.
The dances of Sri Lanka include the devil dances yakun natima , a carefully crafted ritual reaching far back into Sri Lanka's pre-Buddhist past that combines ancient " Ayurvedic " concepts of disease causation with psychological manipulation and combines many aspects including Sinhalese cosmology.
Their influence can be seen on the classical dances of Sri Lanka. The dances of the Middle East are usually the traditional forms of circle dancing which are modernized to an extent.
They would include dabke , tamzara , Assyrian folk dance , Kurdish dance , Armenian dance and Turkish dance , among others. They would make rhythmic moves with their legs and shoulders as they curve around the dance floor.
The head of the dance would generally hold a cane or handkerchief. Folk dances vary across Europe and may date back hundreds or thousands of years, but many have features in common such as group participation led by a caller , hand-holding or arm-linking between participants, and fixed musical forms known as caroles.
Some European folk dances such as the square dance were brought to the New World and subsequently became part of American culture.
Ballet developed first in Italy and then in France from lavish court spectacles that combined music, drama, poetry, song, costumes and dance.
Members of the court nobility took part as performers. During the reign of Louis XIV , himself a dancer, dance became more codified. Professional dancers began to take the place of court amateurs, and ballet masters were licensed by the French government.
Shortly thereafter, the first institutionalized ballet troupe, associated with the Academy, was formed; this troupe began as an all-male ensemble but by opened to include women as well.
The relationship of music to dance serves as the basis for Eurhythmics , devised by Emile Jaques-Dalcroze , which was influential to the development of Modern dance and modern ballet through artists such as Marie Rambert.
Eurythmy , developed by Rudolf Steiner and Marie Steiner-von Sivers , combines formal elements reminiscent of traditional dance with the new freer style, and introduced a complex new vocabulary to dance.
In the s, important founders of the new style such as Martha Graham and Doris Humphrey began their work. Since this time, a wide variety of dance styles have been developed; see Modern dance.
African American dance developed in everyday spaces, rather than in dance studios, schools or companies. Tap dance , disco , jazz dance , swing dance , hip hop dance , the lindy hop with its relationship to rock and roll music and rock and roll dance have had a global influence.
Dance styles fusing classical ballet technique with African-American dance have also appeared in the 21st century, including Hiplet. Dance is central to Latin American social life and culture.
Brazilian Samba , Argentinian tango , and Cuban salsa are internationally popular partner dances, and other national dances— merengue , cueca , plena , jarabe , joropo , marinera , cumbia , bachata and others—are important components of their respective countries' cultures.
Dance has played an important role in forging a collective identity among the many cultural and ethnic groups of Latin America. Hip hop originated in New York, specifically in the area known as the Bronx.
It was created for those who struggled in society and didn't seem to have a voice in the community that surrounded them because of their lack of wealth.
It helped those in the same situation come together and speak about difficult topics by using movement and feeling. Dance studies are offered through the arts and humanities programs of many higher education institutions.
Some universities offer Bachelor of Arts and higher academic degrees in Dance. A dance study curriculum may encompass a diverse range of courses and topics, including dance practice and performance, choreography, ethnochoreology , kinesiology , dance notation , and dance therapy.
Professional dancers are usually employed on contract or for particular performances or productions. The professional life of a dancer is generally one of constantly changing work situations, strong competitive pressure and low pay.
Consequently, professional dancers often must supplement their incomes to achieve financial stability. In the U.
Professional dancers must possess large amounts of athleticism. To lead a successful career, it is advantageous to be versatile in many styles of dance, have a strong technical background and to utilize other forms of physical training to remain fit and healthy.
Dance teachers typically focus on teaching dance performance, or coaching competitive dancers, or both. They typically have performance experience in the types of dance they teach or coach.
For example, dancesport teachers and coaches are often tournament dancers or former dancesport performers. Dance teachers may be self-employed, or employed by dance schools or general education institutions with dance programs.
Some work for university programs or other schools that are associated with professional classical dance e.
Others are employed by smaller, privately owned dance schools that offer dance training and performance coaching for various types of dance.
Choreographers are the ones that design the dancing movements within a dance, they are often university trained and are typically employed for particular projects or, more rarely may work on contract as the resident choreographer for a specific dance company.
A dance competition is an organized event in which contestants perform dances before a judge or judges for awards, and in some cases, monetary prizes.
There are several major types of dance competitions, distinguished primarily by the style or styles of dances performed.
Major types of dance competitions include:. In addition, there are numerous dance competitions shows presented on television and other mass media.
Folk dance — a trio of Irish Stepdancers performing in competition. Folk dance in Estonia. Dance partnering — a male dancer assists a female dancer in performing an arabesque , as part of a classical pas de deux.
Acrobatic dance — an acro dancer performs a front aerial. A dancer performs a "toe rise", in which she rises from a kneeling position to a standing position on the tops of her feet.
Social dance — dancers at a juke joint dance the Jitterbug , an early 20th century dance that would go on to influence swing , jive , and jazz dance.
Gumboot dance evolved from the stomping signals used as coded communication between labourers in South African mines. Harlequin and Columbina from the mime theater in Copenhagen, Denmark.
A hip-hop dancer demonstrates popping. Erotic dance — a pole dancer performs a routine. These two concepts of the art of dance—dance as a powerful impulse and dance as a skillfully choreographed art practiced largely by a professional few—are the two most important connecting ideas running through any consideration of the subject.
In dance, the connection between the two concepts is stronger than in some other arts, and neither can exist without the other.
Although the above broad definition covers all forms of the art, philosophers and critics throughout history have suggested different definitions of dance that have amounted to little more than descriptions of the kind of dance with which each writer was most familiar.
The choreographic art. Savage man, wandering in forests, devouring the quivering flesh of his spoils, can have known nothing of those rhythmic postures which reflect sweet and caressing sensations entirely alien to his moods.
The nearest approach to such must have been the leaps and bounds, the incoherent gestures, by which he expressed the joys and furies of his brutal life.
John Martin , the 20th-century dance critic, almost ignored the formal aspect of dance in emphasizing its role as a physical expression of inner emotion.
This is basic dance. A truly universal definition of dance must, therefore, return to the fundamental principle that dance is an art form or activity that utilizes the body and the range of movement of which the body is capable.
Unlike the movements performed in everyday living, dance movements are not directly related to work, travel, or survival. Dance may, of course, be made up of movements associated with these activities, as in the work dances common to many cultures , and it may even accompany such activities.
But even in the most practical dances, movements that make up the dance are not reducible to those of straightforward labour; rather, they involve some extra qualities such as self-expression, aesthetic pleasure, and entertainment.
This article discusses the techniques and components of dance as well as the aesthetic principles behind its appreciation as an art.
Various types of dance are discussed with emphasis on their style and choreography. The history of dance in various regions is treated in a number of articles; see dance, African ; music and dance, Oceanic ; dance, Western ; arts, Central Asian ; arts, East Asian ; arts, Islamic ; dance, Native American ; arts, South Asian ; and arts, Southeast Asian.
The interaction between dance and other art forms is discussed in folk dance. Dance Article Media Additional Info.