Directed by Matthias Tiefenbacher. With Axel Prahl, Anja Kling, Armin Rohde, Susanna Simon. Der eine ist Politiker, der andere Taxifahrer. Im Scheitern sind die Brüder Lichtenberg unschlagbar. Das ZDF zeigt Axel Prahl in einer. n der Verwechslungskomödie spielt Axel Prahl die eineiigen, aber sehr unterschiedlichen Zwillinge Jochen und Dr. Christian Lichtenberg.
Die Lichtenbergs Inhaltsangabe & Details
Die Lichtenbergs ist eine Geschichte von Zwillingsbrüdern, die unterschiedlicher nicht sein können: Jochen und Christian Lichtenberg, der eine Politiker, der andere Taxifahrer. Über die Jahre und durch ihre unterschiedlichen Lebensumstände haben. "Die Lichtenbergs – zwei Brüder, drei Frauen und jede Menge Zoff", der Film im Kino - Inhalt, Bilder, Kritik, Trailer, Kinoprogramm sowie Kinostart-Termine und. Die Zwillingsbrüder Jochen und Christian Lichtenberg könnten unterschiedlicher nicht sein: Vor Jahren entzweit, müssen sie sich dann aber. Prahl, Kling, Rohde, Tiefenbacher. Verwechslungen im sozialen Wohlfühlmodus. Rainer Tittelbach „Die Lichtenbergs – zwei Brüder, drei Frauen. Directed by Matthias Tiefenbacher. With Axel Prahl, Anja Kling, Armin Rohde, Susanna Simon. Der eine ist Politiker, der andere Taxifahrer. Im Scheitern sind die Brüder Lichtenberg unschlagbar. Das ZDF zeigt Axel Prahl in einer. Die Zwillingsbrüder Jochen und Christian Lichtenberg könnten unterschiedlicher nicht sein: Jochen, der Taxifahrer, ist permanent klamm.
Directed by Matthias Tiefenbacher. With Axel Prahl, Anja Kling, Armin Rohde, Susanna Simon. Prahl, Kling, Rohde, Tiefenbacher. Verwechslungen im sozialen Wohlfühlmodus. Rainer Tittelbach „Die Lichtenbergs – zwei Brüder, drei Frauen. Die Zwillingsbrüder Jochen und Christian Lichtenberg könnten unterschiedlicher nicht sein: Jochen, der Taxifahrer, ist permanent klamm. On a much smaller scale, transient Lichtenberg figures sometimes mistakenly called St. These very dense discharges are similar in appearance to fern fronds "filiciform" or plume agates. The blue-white flash of the electrical discharge can be easily seen along the edge Witcher Triss the specimen in the photo below:. The finest tips eventually disappear into the acrylic. Unlike laser art, every one of our sculptures is a one-of-a-kind treasure. This fascinating phenomenon has recently been captured in slow-motion by lightning Heute Berlin Tom Warner:. This behavior is relatively rare phenomenon - KCl is a " scotophor ". The glowing region of heavily-ionized air created by the exiting Die Lichtenbergs beam of electrons resembled a bluish-violet rocket engine flame. Distribution Multi-channel distribution center in Georgia with fully computerized scan based paperless packaging and shipping. He found that powdered sulfur which becomes negatively-charged by rubbing against its container was more strongly attracted to the positively-charged regions on the surface.
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Photos Add Image Add an image Do you have any images for this title? Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Axel Prahl Video clip of a huge 15 x 20 x 2 inch sculpture being discharged Lichtenberg figures have fractal properties Other interesting effects: fluorescence, solarization, birefringence, and discharge-free zone "Iced 'bergs" and negative Lichtenberg figures.
Do we get curved figures in a magnetic field? Discharge speed and current measurements References and Further reading Other Questions?
Doubly-Irradiated "Windblown Lightning" Sculpture. Sculpture size: 3 x 3 x 2 inches or 7. Professor Lichtenberg first observed this in , demonstrated the phenomenon to his physics students and peers, and reported his findings in his memoir in Latin : De Nova Methodo Naturam Ac Motum Fluidi Electrici Investigandi Göttinger Novi Commentarii, Göttingen, The translated document by Dr.
Blain, Classics Department at McGill University contains the following passage that describes Lichtenberg's initial discovery: "At the beginning of spring , after the completion of the new Electrophore, everything in my little room was still covered with extremely fine resinous dust that had settled, between the scraping and the shaving of the instrument's base or stand, on the walls and books.
As soon as a draft in the air arose, the dust fell, much to my annoyance, on the conducting disc of the Electrophore. Often afterwards, when I held the disc suspended from the ceiling of my room, it turned out that the dust, as it settled on the base, did not cover it completely, as it previously had covered the disc, but only in certain areas.
Much to my great joy, it gathered to form little stars, dim and pale at first, but as the dust was more abundantly and energetically scattered, there were very beautiful and definite figures, not unlike an engraved design.
Sometimes there appeared almost innumerable stars, milky ways, and great suns. There were arcs, unclear on their concave side, but radiant on their convex side.
Very glittering little twigs were formed, similar to those which frozen moisture produces on glass window panes.
There were clouds of different shape and shadows that were visible in varying degrees But the most pleasing sight presented itself to me, when I saw that these figures could not be easily erased, as I tried to wipe away the dust with a feather or a rabbit foot.
I could not prevent these same figures, which I had just erased, from shining forth once more, and somehow, more brightly. Therefore l placed a piece of black paper smeared with a viscous material on the figures and pressed down lightly.
I was able to produce imprints of the figures, six of which the Royal Society has seen. Schematic diagram of a klydonograph showing the position of the photographic film and high voltage electrode.
Light from the high voltage discharges creates a photographic record of the event. Comparison of photographically-captured Lichtenberg figures.
Note variation in size versus peak voltage and polarity Lichtenberg figures are now known to occur during the electrical breakdown of gases, insulating liquids, and solid dielectrics.
Lichtenberg figures may be created within billionths of a second nanoseconds when dielectrics are subjected to very high electrical stress, or they may develop over y ears through a progressive series of small, low-energy, partial discharges.
Countless partial discharges on the surface or the interior of solid dielectrics often create slowly-growing, partially-conductive 2D surface Lichtenberg figures or internal 3D "electrical trees".
Since these partially-conductive trees can eventually cause the complete electrical failure of the insulator, preventing their initial formation and growth is critical to the long-term reliability of all high-voltage equipment.
The study of electrical trees and their prevention has been critical to the reliable design of the high-voltage power transmission systems that transfer electrical power to our homes and businesses.
Using their newly-invented electron accelerator , they injected trillions of free electrons into plastic specimens, triggering electrical breakdown and creating carb on ized internal Lichtenberg figures.
Electrons are tiny, negatively charged particles that orbit the positively-charged nucleus of the atoms that make up all condensed matter.
Brasch and Lange used high voltage pulses from a multi-million volt Marx Generator to drive a pulsed electron beam accelerator.
An article about their research and their accelerator which they called a "Capacitron" originally appeared in the March 10, issue of LIFE Magazine.
The Capacitron could deliver a three-million volt pulse, and could generate a powerful blast of free electrons with an incredible peak current of up to , amperes.
The glowing region of heavily-ionized air created by the exiting high-current beam of electrons resembled a bluish-violet rocket engine flame.
In , Brasch founded the Electronized Chemicals Corporation ECC , a pioneering researcher of using electron beams to cross-link monomers and polymers to improve their electrical and physical properties.
ECC was eventually purchased by the 3M Company in Since , we have developed and refined irradiation and fabrication techniques to create a wide variety of beautiful 2D and 3D sculptures.
We begin by carefully cutting and polishing various shapes from a clear, glass-like polymer called polymethyl methacrylate or PMMA. This material, commonly called acrylic , is sold under various trade names such as Lucite, Plexiglas, or Perspex UK.
Acrylic has a unique combination of high optical clarity and superior electrical and mechanical properties. Besides being an excellent electrical insulator, acrylic is actually clearer than glass!
Lichtenberg figures can be made inside all of these polymers with varying degrees of success. However, the branches tend to be dark gray or even black instead of the sparkling white, mirror-like figures seen within acrylic.
We have also experimented with making Lichtenberg figures in glass. However, since glass Lichtenberg figures often explosively shatter upon discharge or, unpredictably, days or even months later , we no longer make them.
Photo courtesy of Terry Blake As the miniature lightning bolts blast their way through the acrylic, they create millions of microscopic tubes and fractures, leaving behind a permanent "lightning fossil" deep inside the acrylic.
The peak current within the electrical discharge reaches hundreds, or even thousands of amperes, depending upon the physical size of the specimen. The white-hot high-density plasma within the confined discharge channels causes the nearby acrylic to vaporize and fracture, and highest-current "roots" often char the surrounding acrylic.
The exit point of the discharge creates a small crater on the surface as hot gases explosively exit the specimen. Single-discharge branched figures continue to split as paths become finer, filling the charged area, but they never cross or form loops.
The finest tips eventually disappear into the acrylic. Some specimens self-discharge while they're being irradiated by the electron beam.
This is usually caused by a small surface scratch or imperfection, left-over manufacturing or fabrication stresses, or an internal defect, such as a small bubble or inclusion, inside the acrylic.
A self-discharged specimen will continue to discharge numerous times while it is being irradiated as the electron beam continues to inject new charge into the specimen.
Unlike the neatly-branched structures seen in manually-triggered sculptures, self-triggered sculptures typically develop a thicker, mat-like tangle of chaotic discharges, or a complex combination of dendritic and chaotic patterns.
Because of their complexity, self-discharged specimens are often among some of our most fascinating sculptures. Video clip of a huge 15 x 20 x 2 inch sculpture being discharged: Following is a short video clip showing a huge 15" x 20" x 2" specimen being discharged.
The specimen was first charged on one side using a 5 MeV electron beam. The electrically-charged specimen was then very carefully! Prior to discharging, the estimated potential of these internal layers was over 2.
Because there were two very large charge layers, this specimen stored significantly more electrostatic energy than most of our other specimens - more than four kilojoules!
Safety precautions were necessary to prevent the possibility of receiving a painful, and potentially dangerous, electrical shock.
Although the main discharge is quite brief under billionths of a second for this specimen , the video successfully captured the brilliance of the 4 kilojoule electrical discharge in a single video frame shown below.
Numerous secondary discharges continued to intermittently flash after the main discharge. These continued with decreasing frequency for over 30 minutes.
This video is courtesy of Dr. The resulting sculpture, cradled within a custom walnut light base and illuminated by an array of white and blue LED's, is also shown below.
Lichtenberg figures have fractal properties. The branching pattern of a Lichtenberg figure looks similar at various scales of magnification.
This property is called "self-similarity", and it suggests that Lichtenberg figures can be mathematically described through a branch of mathematics called Fractal Geometry.
Unlike most common geometric forms, fractal-like objects do not have even-integer dimensions. Instead, they have dimensions that lie between 1 and 2 for 2-dimensional fractals or between 2 and 3 for 3-dimensional fractals.
Lichtenberg figures may be one of the first fractal-like forms created by man. Our branching 2D Lichtenberg figures have a fractal dimension that varies between 1.
Most of our standard 2D sculptures have a fractal dimension of about 1. Our 3D sculptures typically have a fractal dimension of about 2.
The appearance of the resulting Lichtenberg figures depends upon how much charge was injected into the acrylic and where and when the specimens are discharged.
The technical terms for branching figures are dendritic or ramified tree-like. If a larger amount of electrical charge is injected into a specimen, very dense dendritic discharges can be created such as in Figure 1 below.
These very dense discharges are similar in appearance to fern fronds "filiciform" or plume agates. Specimens exhibiting this form were heavily charged to just below the point of self-breakdown and then immediately discharged.
If we reduce the amount of injected charge, more classical, lightning-like or tree-like discharges are created Figure 2. The fractal dimension of chaotic discharges is currently unknown.
In chaotic discharge specimens, after the initial breakdown, newly-injected electrons from the accelerator recharge smaller nearby regions, causing them to repetitively discharge in random directions into existing discharge channels.
The rapidly changing internal electrical fields create a much thicker mat of densely chaotic discharges that are reminiscent of interconnected nerve cells and neural networks.
Some of the most complex and fascinating patterns occur when a specimen self-discharges about halfway through the charging process, creating dramatic discharges that change from being densely dendritic to densely chaotic across the sculpture.
Similar fractal-like patterns are prevalent in nature. They are seen in aerial views of rivers and their tributaries, and organic structures such as branching tree limbs, your body's circulatory system, and within various organs such as lungs, kidneys, and the liver.
The similar branching structure of all of these systems may be a consequence of a recently proposed new law of physics, the Constructal Law , which states that Nature tends to develop a hierarchical branching network of paths that result in most efficient flow.
The flowing material can be water, air Lichtenberg figures can be mathematically modeled using an iterative growth process called "Diffusion Limited Aggregation" DLA.
Other interesting properties: fluorescence, solarization, birefringence, and the discharge-free zone When acrylic is bombarded by high-energy electrons, it glows brilliantly with a blue-white color.
Radiation chemistry studies suggest that this is mainly due to luminescence that peaks at a wavelength of about nm.
However, acrylic also generates fainter glows from X-ray fluorescence , and Cherenkov radiation as high velocity electrons interact with acrylic molecules.
The detailed light-producing mechanisms for electron-irradiated acrylic are not fully understood. Newly-irradiated specimens develop a discolored layer in the region between the irradiated surface s and the discharge layer.
This phenomenon, called solarization, appears to be caused by various interactions between the injected electrons and the molecular structure of the acrylic.
As they penetrate the specimen, they collide with acrylic molecules, rapidly coming to a stop within a fraction of an inch.
Electrons in the beam have considerable kinetic energy, and as they collide with the atoms in the acrylic they release this energy as heat and x-rays.
In acrylic, most solarization seems to occur in the regions directly hit by the electrons. However, regions that are intentionally covered by sheet lead to prevent electrons from hitting some areas of the acrylic may also exhibit solarization within deeper regions of the acrylic.
As electrons crash into the lead mask, they radiate intense x-rays that apparently create a darker region of solarization in the acrylic immediately underneath the mask.
Energetic collisions with electrons, x-rays, and the build-up of excess electrons stimulate chemical and physical reactions that alter the physical and optical properties of the acrylic.
Deeply-trapped electrons may remain stranded within the acrylic for several years. These create color centers which also contribute to solarization.
While some of these changes may last for only minutes, others persist for months or years after irradiation, and some appear to be permanent.
Although all of the specific causes of solarization are not completely understood, there is evidence that irradiation creates longer-lived unstable " metastable " compounds that preferentially absorb light at the blue end of the spectrum wavelengths between and nm.
Since a portion of the blue spectrum of ambient light is absorbed by the solarized region, freshly-irradiated specimens typically appear green, amber, or sometimes even rose-colored when illuminated by white light.
The solarization layer in charged acrylic specimens is most often lime-green immediately after irradiation.
Within minutes of being discharged, the solarized layer changes to brownish-amber, then fades to a lighter amber color over weeks or months.
The amber region usually fades away over months to several years. The fading process can usually be accelerated by heating the block in the presence of air or by leaving the specimen in bright sunlight for an extended period of time.
As oxygen diffuses into the acrylic from the outside surfaces and the porous discharge layer, it slowly bleaches the solarized region, causing the solarized layer in between to gradually become thinner until it eventually disappears entirely.
Most Lichtenberg figures older than years are completely bleached. Although older specimens may no longer show any solarization, many exhibit various degrees of "fogging" from electron collisions and X-radiation damage to the acrylic's molecular structure.
Some PMMA specimens exhibit comparatively little initial solarization, while a small percentage of other specimens permanently retain their amber color.
Permanently-colored specimens appear to be solarized via a different, deeper penetrating mechanism, such as X-radiation, since these specimens also tend to be uniformly solarized throughout their entire thickness.
These differences may be due to su btle variations in the acrylic blends and the specific catalytic agents used by acrylic manufacturers to polymerize the acrylic.
The solarized layer is often fluorescent. An amateur scientist from Australia, Daniel Rutter, discovered that monochromatic light from a green laser pointer apparently changes color when passed through the solarized layer of a Lichtenberg figure.
Both effects appear to be due to the presence of semi-stable fluorescent components within the solarized layer. And, as the solarization fades over time, so does the fluorescence.
Most specimens also exhibit slight changes in the refractive index in the regions near the discharge layer. This may be due t o residual mechanical stresses near the discharge fractures or residual electrical charges.
Residual stresses near the Lichtenberg figures can sometimes be seen as multicolored regions near the discharge plane when a sculpture is illuminated by polarized light and then viewed through a second polarizing filter, a configuration called crossed polarizers.
When physically stressed mechanically or by a large electrical field, acrylic exhibits a property called birefringence. When viewed through crossed polarizers, stress- or electrical-field-induced birefringence causes changes in color that are directly related to the amount and distribution of otherwise hidden mechanical and electrical stresses.
The sample below clearly show internal compressive forces created by the high internal electrical field.
These forces are then mostly relieved when the specimen is discharged. Following are images of the same specimen prior to charging, fully charged, and then after discharging.
Little internal stress is seen in the initially uncharged specimen. The specimen was then charged by injecting electrons from the left side. The injected charge forms an intensely negative layer of charge near the center of the specimen.
At the same time, positive ions created in the air by collisions between air molecules and the high-energy electrons in the beam are strongly attracted by the internal negative charges.
The positive ions attach themselves to the external surfaces of the specimen. The outer positive "mirror" charge layer partially neutralizes the electrical field created by the internal negative charge layer, dramatically reducing the electrical field seen outside the specimen.
Attraction between the internal negative layer and the positively-charged outer surfaces create intense compressive stresses within the acrylic.
For the specimens below, the compressive force created between the charge layers is approximately pounds per square inch PSI.
The compression can easily be seen as colored regions on either side of the center in the middle image. After the specimen is discharged, both the electrical and mechanical stresses are greatly relieved as can be seen in the rightmost image.
There are still residual mechanical stresses near the discharge zone due to all the microscopic fracturing, and residual electrical stresses left over from embedded charges that were not removed by the main spark discharge.
Click on any of the individual images below to see full-sized images. Further study, using a monochromatic light source, is planned for the future.
Initially uncharged specimen Fully charged specimen electrons were injected from left side Discharged specimen Finally, all of our sculptures have a discharge-free zone along the outside boundary.
Since acrylic is not a perfect insulator, some of the injected charge "leaks away" through the perimeter that separates the internal negative space charge layer and the positively-charged outer surfaces.
The charge leaks away most quickly in those areas where the electrical field is greatest, such as along the perimeter. The boundary is also influenced by positive charges on surface of the specimen.
As propagating streamers approach the edges of the sculpture, the electrical field "seen" by the tips of the growing discharges is dramatically reduced as they approach the positive surface charges.
As the advancing streamer tips approach the outer edges, most streamers thin and die out. However, some discharge tips suddenly make an abrupt turn and then continue to grow parallel to the nearby edge.
We suspect that the positive charges on the large outer surfaces force the discharges to be confined to a thin layer, parallel to the outer surfaces of the specimen.
And, do we get curved figures in a magnetic field? One of our team members, Todd Johnson, has christened these frozen objects as "Iced 'bergs".
At room temperature, injected charge leaks away over a few minutes to a few hours for commercial acrylic. Chilling acrylic significantly reduces the speed that free charges can move inside the acrylic, and this dramatically increases the time that trapped charges can be stored.
At dry ice temperatures, trapped charges can apparently be stored indefinitely. We have confirmed virtually full charge retention over several weeks, and other researchers have demonstrated charge storage for up to six months.
When later discharged, these specimens behave in a fashion similar to freshly-charged specimens. The initial lime-green color of the solarized layer is also retained in chilled specimens until they are discharged.
This suggests that the green color is related to the high density of electrons that remain trapped before discharging.
Or perhaps this proves that electrons are green?